Thursday, July 24, 2014

#Apple and #IBM Announcement

IBM and Apple have announced a landmark partnership to transform the way work is done, joining forces to bring businesses the devices, services, security, and integration they need to exploit the full potential of mobility.

Together, we will deliver new capability in four categories:
  • A new class of more than 100 industry-specific enterprise solutions including native apps, developed exclusively for iPhone and iPad
  • Unique IBM cloud services optimized for iOS, including device management, security, analytics and mobile integration
  • New AppleCare service and support, with onsite service available
  • New packaged offerings from IBM for device activation, supply and management, with IBM Global Financing
By bringing together the analytics and enterprise-scale computing of IBM with the elegant user experience of iPhone and iPad, this partnership will deliver a new level of value for businesses.

Check out more of IBM's software offerings, articles, and events on my page.

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Attention Georgia Drivers! Get your Lung Cancer Awareness License Plate today!

The plates are available exclusively through The Joan Gaeta Lung Cancer Fund. Georgia drivers can learn more and begin the process of getting theirs at

The $25 plate manufacturing fee, payable to The Joan Gaeta Lung Cancer Fund, helps them support ground-breaking research through the Addario Lung Cancer Medical Institute.


The Joan Gaeta Lung Cancer Fund was created in the fall of 2007 as The Joan Gaeta Lung Cancer Foundation by her husband and children to raise awareness of the disease, to educate the public, and to be an advocate for research. They also strive to eliminate the stigma of lung cancer and to support survivors and their loved ones in their local community.

In July of 2010, they re-launched as The Joan Gaeta Lung Cancer Fund benefiting the Addario Lung Cancer Medical Institute. Their ultimate goal remains the same: “to eradicate lung cancer.” By partnering with one significant research initiative, they can make a much greater impact in wiping out lung cancer.

Tina Pink holds her Lung Cancer
Awareness Plate - the first one of its kind
in the world to be registered.

The Addario Lung Cancer Medical Institute (ALCMI) was established in 2008 as a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization with the ultimate goal of significantly impacting survival by directly catalyzing and accelerating discovery of new and more effective treatment options for all lung cancer patients. Presently, ALCMI has 13 academic and community medical centers in the United States and Europe closely collaborating on cutting edge research initiatives.

  • Even if you have never smoked, you can get lung cancer. 
  • 60% of new cases are now diagnosed in non-smokers and former smokers. 
  • Lung cancer is the #1 cancer killer of both men and women. 
  • Every three minutes, someone is diagnosed with the disease. 
  • It kills more people each year than breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, melanoma, and kidney cancer combined. 
  • It surpassed breast cancer of the #1 killer of women in 1987. 
  • The 5 year survival rate for lung cancer is still only 15% - the same as it was nearly 40 years ago. 
  • Learn more at

John Cressler's Second Novel Available Now!

Shadows in the Shining City
Book Two of the Anthems of al-Andalus Series
Available today at
Learn more about Shadows, the Anthems of al-Andalus,
and Dr. Cressler's other books at

John D. Cressler is Schlumberger Chair Professor in Electronics at Georgia Tech, and an an author.

Emeralds of the Alhambra, his debut novel, and book one in the Anthems of al-Andalus series, was released in June 2013 by Sunbury Press. Book two in the series, Shadows in the Shining City, was released in July of 2014.

His non-fiction books include: Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (2003), Reinventing Teenagers: the Gentle Art of Instilling Character in Our Young People (2004), Silicon Heterostructure Handbook: Materials, Fabrication, Devices, Circuits and Applications of SiGe and Si Strained Layer Epitaxy (2006), Silicon Earth: Introduction to the Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Revolution (2009), and Extreme Environment Electronics (2013).

Monday, July 21, 2014

Netcool Operations Insights powered by OMNIbus

Have you thought:
  • How can I reduce my event storm noise?
  • How can I quickly identify and resolve problems from service impacting events
  • How can I move beyond reactive problem remediation to identify service impacting events before they occur
  • What part of my infrastructure can be more efficient and less costly?
IBM Netcool Operations Insight helps you:
  • Improve operational agility with real time analytics
  • Accelerate problem identification and resolution with search analytics
  • Improve operational efficiency with historical analytics
Click here for the white paper: The manager of managers for today's instrumented business and technology world

Click here for the video: Netcool Operations Insights powered by OMNIbus

Live Demo: Setting up your MaaS360 Portal

Date: Tuesday July 29th at 2pm ET, 11am PT

Are you ready to start using MaaS360 for Mobile Device Management (MDM)? Let us show you how easy it is to have your devices up and running in minutes. After a few simple steps, you can securely manage iOS, Android, and Windows Phone devices from the MaaS360 portal.

You are invited to join IBM's upcoming live demo to learn about the tools available to help you manage window devices on your corporate network.

Register now to join us for this event:

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Apple and IBM Forge Global Partnership

Companies Transform Enterprise Mobility


CUPERTINO, California and ARMONK, New York - 15 Jul 2014: Apple® and IBM today announced an exclusive partnership that teams the market-leading strengths of each company to transform enterprise mobility through a new class of business apps—bringing IBM’s big data and analytics capabilities to iPhone® and iPad®.

The landmark partnership aims to redefine the way work will get done, address key industry mobility challenges and spark true mobile-led business change—grounded in four core capabilities:

  • a new class of more than 100 industry-specific enterprise solutions including native apps, developed exclusively from the ground up, for iPhone and iPad;
  • unique IBM cloud services optimized for iOS, including device management, security, analytics and mobile integration;
  • new AppleCare® service and support offering tailored to the needs of the enterprise;  and  
  • new packaged offerings from IBM for device activation, supply and management.

The new IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions will be built in an exclusive collaboration that draws on the distinct strengths of each company: IBM’s big data and analytics capabilities, with the power of more than 100,000 IBM industry and domain consultants and software developers behind it, fused with Apple’s legendary consumer experience,  hardware and software integration and developer platform. The combination will create apps that can transform specific aspects of how businesses and employees work using iPhone and iPad, allowing companies to achieve new levels of efficiency, effectiveness and customer satisfaction—faster and easier than ever before.

As part of the exclusive IBM MobileFirst for iOS agreement, IBM will also sell iPhones and iPads with the industry-specific solutions to business clients worldwide.

“iPhone and iPad are the best mobile devices in the world and have transformed the way people work with over 98 percent of the Fortune 500 and over 92 percent of the Global 500 using iOS devices in their business today,” said Tim Cook, Apple’s CEO. “For the first time ever we’re putting IBM’s renowned big data analytics at iOS users’ fingertips, which opens up a large market opportunity for Apple. This is a radical step for enterprise and something that only Apple and IBM can deliver.”

“Mobility—combined with the phenomena of data and cloud—is transforming business and our industry in historic ways, allowing people to re-imagine work, industries and professions,” said Ginni Rometty, IBM Chairman, President and CEO. “This alliance with Apple will build on our momentum in bringing these innovations to our clients globally, and leverages IBM’s leadership in analytics, cloud, software and services. We are delighted to be teaming with Apple, whose innovations have transformed our lives in ways we take for granted, but can’t imagine living without. Our alliance will bring the same kind of transformation to the way people work, industries operate and companies perform.”

Apple and IBM’s shared vision for this partnership is to put in the hands of business professionals everywhere the unique capabilities of iPads and iPhones with a company’s knowledge, data, analytics and workflows. Specifically, the two companies are working together to deliver the essential elements of enterprise mobile solutions:

  • Mobile solutions that transform business: The companies will collaborate to build IBM MobileFirst for iOS Solutions—a new class of “made-for-business apps” targeting specific industry issues or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, travel and transportation, telecommunications and insurance, among others, that will become available starting this fall and into 2015.
  • Mobile platform: The IBM MobileFirst Platform for iOS will deliver the services required for an end-to-end enterprise capability, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale device management, security and integration. Enhanced mobile management includes a private app catalog, data and transaction security services, and productivity suite for all IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions. In addition to on-premise software solutions, all these services will be available on Bluemix—IBM’s development platform on the IBM Cloud Marketplace.
  • Mobile service and support: AppleCare for Enterprise will provide IT departments and end users with 24/7 assistance from Apple’s award-winning customer support group, with on-site service delivered by IBM.
  • Packaged service offerings: IBM is introducing IBM MobileFirst Supply and Management for device supply, activation and management services for iPhone and iPad, with leasing options.

Announced at Apple’s Worldwide Developer Conference in June and available later this year, Apple’s iOS 8 is the biggest release since the launch of the App Store℠, giving users incredible new features and developers the tools to create amazing new apps. For enterprise, iOS 8 builds on the new IT model for a mobilized workforce by improving the way users are informed of how their devices are configured, managed or restricted, with expanded security, management and productivity features.

Apple designs Macs, along with OS X, iLife, iWork and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App Store, and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices with iPad.

IBM’s 5,000 mobile experts have been at the forefront of mobile enterprise innovation. IBM has secured more than 4,300 patents in mobile, social and security, that have been incorporated into IBM MobileFirst solutions that enable enterprise clients to radically streamline and accelerate mobile adoption, help organizations engage more people and capture new markets.

IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in security in the past decade, has more than 6,000 security researchers and developers in its 25 security labs worldwide that work on developing enterprise-class solutions.

IBM has also established the world’s deepest portfolio in Big Data and Analytics consulting and technology expertise based on experiences drawn from more than 40,000 data and analytics client engagements. This analytics portfolio spans research and development, solutions, software and hardware, and includes more than 15,000 analytics consultants, 4,000 analytics patents, 6,000 industry solution business partners, and 400 IBM mathematicians who are helping clients use big data to transform their organizations.

For more information regarding the new Apple and IBM solutions, please visit or

Live Demonstration: Navigate the Datacenter Maze with Server Automation

When:  July 29 at 10 am ET

Datacenters are the lifeline of many organizations and need to be securely managed at all times with any downtime being unacceptable. A look under the hood of a typical datacenter reveals a complex and dynamic environment that comprises of several different server configurations, operating systems, virtualization platforms and implementations. Given today’s climate of growing security breaches and shrinking IT budgets, the task of keeping this diverse mix of local and remote servers secure, compliant and well-managed is almost impossible.

IBM Endpoint Manager for Datacenters optimizes IT efficiency through higher levels of automation and enables you to find and fix problems in minutes across all servers, regardless of OS or connection type, ensuring continuous compliance with security & regulatory policies. This software offers a rich set of pre-built automation that can easily be adapted to create and re-use custom automation flows. Now you can reduce the cost and complexity of datacenter operations while enhancing security, business agility, speed to remediation and accuracy.

Join IBM Endpoint Manager Specialist Brad Fisher s he walks you through how easy it is to:

  • Automate patching of Microsoft Server Clusters
  • Automate server build and deployment
  • Deploy OS and distribute software

Register now to join us for this event at

Thursday, July 10, 2014

Cloud Innovation Series

Participate in the latest Socialcast series to see how IT Operations and developers can mitigate risk and reduce cost while supporting new technologies like cloud, analytics, mobile and social. Learn the IBM Application Performance Management (APM) and Workload Automation solutions that are available to support these new technologies.

Click on the title of the Socialcast below for a full description and to register.

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Major Retailer Reduces Time to Patch 27,000 Endpoints from Weeks to Hours

A major retailer needed to streamline management of its 27,000 Virtual Store Architecture servers. By deploying IBM Endpoint Manager, the retailer has drastically reduced provisioning and reporting time as well as labor costs, and has the insight to avoid many endpoint performance issues.

Click HERE to read the case study. (.pdf File)

Friday, June 27, 2014

Live Demo: EMM Fundamentals with @MaaS360

Tuesday, July 1st, 2014 @ 2pm Eastern / 11am Pacific

Your colleagues have already flooded the enterprise with a variety of smartphones and tablets, demanding access to corporate resources anytime, from anywhere. How do you determine whose devices are secure and how will you protect the privacy of your users' personal information - all while staying in compliance with your industry's regulations?

It can be done! From Apple to Android devices, and everything in between, no matter what kind of tablets or smartphones you have to manage, we have you covered!

Join Mobile MaaSter Sergiy Mimkha as he walks you through the MaaS360 portal and you will learn how to manage basic Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM) features such as:

  • OTA device configuration
  • Security policy management
  • Corporate email and content access
  • WiFi and VPN settings
  • Enterprise data wipe

Sergiy will be taking your questions in an interactive Q&A session so be sure to attend the live event!

Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Lung Cancer Study of Why Young, Healthy are Stricken

Originally published on June 24th, 2014 by Victoria Colliver at
Victoria is a San Francisco Chronicle staff writer.

Natalie DiMarco's only obvious risk factor for getting lung cancer was having lungs.

Natalie DiMarco
DiMarco had been experiencing respiratory problems for months in 2010, but her doctors just assumed the mother of two had allergies. By the time she learned she had lung cancer, the disease had spread into her lymph nodes and reached the membranes that surround the lungs.

"I'm young, didn't have any history of smoking, and that's why a doctor didn't X-ray me from the beginning," said DiMarco, now 36, who lives in Penngrove with her husband, daughters, ages 5 and 6, and a teenage stepson.

An estimated 4,600 to 6,900 people under 40 in the U.S. are diagnosed every year with lung cancer that has no apparent cause.

The disease appears to be quite different from the lung cancer found in longtime smokers and, aside from initial research that indicates that young patients, like DiMarco, tend to share certain genetic changes, the source remains a mystery.

A new study just getting under way hopes to find out more about these patients, what they have in common and, potentially, why they get lung cancer. If researchers can find a common thread, or several, it could lead to more effective treatment or point the way to new targeted therapies.

The $300,000 Genomics of Young Lung Cancer Study is small - just 60 patients - but the lead researchers hope it will help find the answers they're looking for and even help others with lung cancer, particularly the 15 percent of the nearly 230,000 Americans diagnosed with lung cancer each year who have never smoked.

Addario Lung Cancer Medical Institute, a partner organization of the Bonnie J. Addario Lung Cancer Foundation in San Carlos, initiated and is paying for the study along with Genentech.

Not much is known.

Bonnie Addario, who was diagnosed with lung cancer in her mid-50s in 2003 and founded the organizations that bear her name, said much is unknown about this population of patients because it's never been systematically studied.

"We're hoping to find something that may be in another cancer or another disease that could be part of their therapy," she said.

Dr. Barbara Gitlitz, a lead researcher of the study and director of the lung, head and neck program at the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, said the disease should be thought about as its own entity.

"We may discover that by looking at the genomics of these people, we may find driver mutations. We'll see patterns that might be specific to this population and we might see something new," she said.

Time is of the essence, considering how devastating a lung cancer diagnosis is.

Bonnie Addario
Just 15 percent of people diagnosed with lung cancer live longer than five years, in part because the disease is difficult to detect in its earlier stages and tends to be caught too late. That's particularly true among young people because no one's looking for it.

"What we're hearing quite often is that they're athletes and they're very fit - the people you would least expect to have cancer, let alone lung cancer," Addario said.

She added that the disease appears to be more common in young, nonsmoking women than in their male counterparts.

Inspired by Cal athlete.

Jill Costello
The study was inspired by Jill Costello, a San Francisco native and varsity coxswain for UC Berkeley's women's crew, who died of lung cancer in 2010 at age 22, a year after she was diagnosed. Jill's Legacy, a subsidiary of Addario's foundation, was created in her honor to raise funds and awareness for lung cancer among young people.

Researchers do know that young people and nonsmokers with non-small-cell lung cancer - the most common kind - typically have alterations in their genes that can affect how the disease is treated.

The genetic mutation found most often - EGRF, for epidermal growth factor receptor - occurs in about 10 to 15 percent of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

But a host of other known mutations - ALK, ROS1, BRAF, HER2, MET, RET - have also been identified as contributing to lung cancer in young patients, said Dr. Geoffrey Oxnard, a lung cancer specialist at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, also a lead researcher of the study.

Drugs have been developed in recent years to "target" those mutations, or go after those specific cells to thwart their growth. The first EGRF therapies, AstraZeneca's Iressa, or gefitinib, was approved by federal regulators in 2003 followed by Roche's Tarceva, or erlotinib, in 2005.

But even these relatively new treatments don't cure the disease; at most they buy time - from several months to five years - before the cancer returns.

Oxnard said he hopes the study - which will test for more than 200 mutations - will not only show a pattern of these genetic alterations but also spotlight the necessity for young and nonsmoking people to get genetically tested after diagnosis, which is not routinely done in all centers.

"We know comprehensive genetic testing has the potential to make a difference in any cancer patient, but we think in these patients, it's really going to be transformative," Oxnard said.

DiMarco, who hopes to participate in the study, said she learned her genetic subtype by seeking out specialists around the country. Almost by chance her biopsy was tested by a Boston surgeon for the ROS1 alteration, which in 2010 was just newly identified.

The mutation makes DiMarco a candidate for a drug called crizotinib, sold under Pfizer's brand name Xalkori. DiMarco, who has undergone numerous rounds of chemotherapy and radiation, has not yet resorted to Xalkori because she and her doctors want to keep that in the arsenal to use only if and when it becomes necessary. So far her disease has been kept in check, and she's been off chemotherapy for 17 months while undergoing regular scanning.

Lisa Goldman
Another young patient, Lisa Goldman, a mother of two who lives in Mountain View, was diagnosed with lung cancer in January at age 40. The disease was found in both lungs and considered stage four.

Like DiMarco, Goldman has tested positive for the ROS1 mutation and has also chosen to hold off on Xalkori after receiving other therapies in combination with traditional chemotherapies.

"I have that in my back pocket to use next," she said, referring to the Pfizer drug.

Goldman, who may not be eligible for the study now that she's 41, said the stigma of lung cancer because of its connection to smoking causes her to hesitate about naming her disease and then assert she's never smoked. But she speaks out about having lung cancer because she says she has to.

"People need to know this happens. I'm not a fan of smoking, but nobody deserves to get cancer," she said. "Smoking is a contributor to breast cancer and heart disease and other disease, but people don't ask you if you caused this yourself."

Goldman's latest scan showed her tumors had shrunk or remained stable, with the exception of one tiny new spot. But she tries to retain a sense of normalcy, particularly for her kids, ages 8 and 11.

"How do you live with something like this hanging over your head?" she said. "You just can't live like every day is your last."

Living in the present.

DiMarco manages by incorporating Chinese medicine - acupuncture, massage, cupping therapy - into her life. As far as her young children know, their mom has some "bad cells in her body" that "made a spot in her lung" and that she has to take medications to get rid of it.

While DiMarco knows she's been dealt a difficult hand, she tries to live in the present but look to the future about the potential treatment options.

"It's all about what card you play that buys you the most time," DiMarco said. "If I understand what to do now ... I can sleep easier and not have to worry. But I need to have a plan. I need to know, what do we do next?"

About lung cancer:
  • Every year, more than 228,000 people are diagnosed with lung cancer in the U.S. and about 160,000 will die of the disease.
  • An estimated 7,000 to 9,000 people under age 40 are living with lung cancer. The average age at diagnosis is 70.
  • Lung cancer takes more lives than any other cancer. It accounts for 27 percent of all cancer deaths - more than breast, prostate and colon cancers combined.
  • Funding for lung cancer lags behind other cancers, especially considering the impact of the disease. The federal government spent $315 million on lung cancer research in 2012 compared with $603 million for breast cancer.
  • Most people diagnosed with lung cancer are former smokers or people who've never smoked - about 15 percent have never smoked and more than 50 percent have smoked in the past but quit.

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Dare to be different!!!

Do you live in Georgia?  Get your Lung Cancer Awareness specialty license plate today!

Dare to be different and let your fellow motorists know that lung cancer matters, too!

Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Live Demo: Your endpoints deserve more than an XPiration date!

Tuesday, June 24, 2014 at 1 p.m.

Now that Microsoft has cut the cord on supporting WinXP, organizations who do not upgrade are more vulnerable than ever as open targets to hackers who could exploit vulnerabilities in expired devices. Recent studies indicate that IT downtime not only has serious security implications but can also cost $1M per hour. 

Now, imagine a world where you have immediate visibility into the status of every device connected to your corporate data and can apply patches and security fixes before problems arise.

If you work on the front lines of managing laptops, desktops, and servers, you know a real-time solution that could tell you the state of endpoints in seconds -instead of days or weeks- while reducing downtime is critical.

Join IBM Endpoint Manager specialist Jason Cordell as he walks you through how easy it is to:
  • Discover endpoints and efficiently upgrade eligible WinXP devices to Win7
  • Preserve existing user settings and data
  • Provide centralized, automated deployment to new endpoints

Register now to join us for this event @

Tuesday, June 17, 2014

New Study Aims to Rapidly Test Lung Cancer Drugs

Breyan Harris, a lifelong non-smoker who was recently diagnosed with lung cancer, posses at her home in Fair Oaks, Calif., Monday, June 16, 2014. Harris, 33, hopes to enroll in a new cancer drug test that starts Monday in hundred of hospitals around the country. Like a medical version of speed dating, doctors will sort through multiple potential drugs and match patients to the one most likely to succeed based on each person's unique tumor gene profile.(AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli)
The Associated Press

A bold new way to test cancer drugs started Monday in hundreds of hospitals around the U.S. In a medical version of speed dating, doctors will sort through multiple experimental drugs and match patients to the one most likely to succeed based on each person's unique tumor gene profile.

It's a first-of-a-kind experiment that brings together five drug companies, the government, private foundations and advocacy groups. The idea came from the federal Food and Drug Administration, which has agreed to consider approving new medicines based on results from the study.

Its goal is to speed new treatments to market and give seriously ill patients more chances to find something that will help. Instead of being tested for individual genes and trying to qualify for separate clinical trials testing single drugs, patients can enroll in this umbrella study, get full gene testing and have access to many options at once.

The study, called Lung-MAP, is for advanced cases of a common, hard-to-treat form of lung cancer — squamous cell. Plans for similar studies for breast and colon cancer are in the works.

"For patients, it gives them their best chance for treatment of a deadly disease," because everyone gets some type of therapy, said Ellen Sigal, chairwoman and founder of Friends of Cancer Research, a Washington-based research and advocacy group that helped plan and launch the study. "There's something for everyone, and we'll get answers faster" on whether experimental drugs work, she said.

Cancer medicines increasingly target specific gene mutations that are carried by smaller groups of patients. But researchers sometimes have to screen hundreds of patients to find a few with the right mutation, making drug development inefficient, expensive and slow.

One of the leaders of the Lung-MAP study — Dr. Roy Herbst, chief of medical oncology at the Yale Cancer Center — said he once screened 100 patients to find five that might be eligible for a study, and ultimately was able to enroll two.

"It's just going to be impossible, in rare subgroups, for companies to find enough" people to try out a new medicine, said Dr. Richard Pazdur, cancer drugs chief at the FDA. He and others at the FDA suggested the Lung-MAP trial design to speed new treatments to market and "minimize the number of patients exposed to ineffective therapies," he said.

Everyone in the study will be screened for mutations in more than 200 cancer-related genes, rather than a single mutation as in conventional studies.

Then they will be assigned to one of five groups based on what these tumor biomarkers show. Each group will test a particular experimental medicine. Drugs can be added or subtracted from the study as it goes on, based on how each performs.

The initial round of testing involves Amgen, Genentech, Pfizer, AstraZeneca PLC, and AstraZeneca's global biologics partner, MedImmune. Up to 1,000 patients a year can be enrolled in the study.

It will cost about $150 million. The National Cancer Institute is paying $25 million, and the rest will come from foundations, charities and others in the public-private partnership.

About 500 hospitals that are part of a large cancer treatment consortium around the country will take part, and some private groups want to join as well, Herbst said.

"Nothing like this has ever been done before," where such comprehensive testing will be done to match patients to experimental drugs, he said.

Breyan Harris, a 33-year-old nurse from Sacramento, hopes to enroll. She's a lifelong non-smoker who was diagnosed with lung cancer on June 3.

"Since then I've pretty much been on the phone, seeing doctors, trying to figure out how do I get rid of this," she said. Harris expects to have one lung with a large tumor removed, "but if it comes back in my other lung I'm in real trouble," so finding a drug to attack any remaining, hidden cancer is crucial, she said.


Copyright 2014 The Associated Press